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Apricot (from the Latin Prúnus armeniáca) belongs to the fruit trees of the genus Plum from the family Pink, or Rosaceae. It is a deciduous tree of medium height, with gray-brown and longitudinally cracking bark. Flowering occurs between March and April, inclusive, and fruiting, depending on varietal characteristics, may be in June – August.
Features of the selection of varieties
The Siberian region is characterized by a variety of climatic conditions. In a significant part of Siberia, the climate is harsh and refers to sharply continental. but in the southern part of Siberia, in the Altai Territory, the climate allows cultivating heat-loving plants, including apricot. Nevertheless, the issue of choosing a variety should be approached very carefully.
Breeders have developed varieties that are perfectly adapted for cultivation in adverse, rather difficult soil and climatic conditions, but low temperature conditions and a shallow snow cover contribute to a sufficiently deep freezing of the soil. That is why when choosing a variety, it is necessary to pay attention to the indicators of winter hardiness and frost resistance declared by the originator.
Varietal features must be taken into account.. Experienced gardeners recommend giving preference to zoned varieties. Planting material itself must be purchased in plant nurseries in the region of the proposed cultivation of fruit crops.
Apricot: planting and care
The best and promising varieties
For a long time, such thermophilic crops as apricots and peaches did not take root in horticultural farms of the Siberian region. Experienced domestic and foreign breeders have relatively recently been able to realize the dream of Siberian gardeners, thanks to which apricot varieties quite stable and well bearing fruit in severe climatic conditions have appeared.
The best varieties suitable for planting in the Siberian region are resistant to very low winter temperatures, spring return frosts, sharp temperature drops, prolonged thaws and excessive stagnation of water in household plots.
|"Siberian Baikalov"||Height not more than 3.5 m, with a spreading crown with a diameter of 4 m||Medium in size, weighing up to 23−25 g, with a slight blush, fragrant and dense pulp||May||Rapid growth and development|
|"Sayan"||Height not more than 2.5-3 m, medium growth||Mass 25-30 g, rounded, without blush||May – early June||The yield of the hybrid form is up to 15-16 kg per tree|
|Khabarovsk||A tall plant with a rare and spreading crown||Large, weighing up to 40−45 g, round-cone-shaped, slightly compressed||The second decade of May||Powerful and unpretentious plant|
|"Northern Lights"||Medium growth, high winter hardiness||Rounded, with a distinct seam, weighing 25-30, with good taste||The second decade of May||Elite Variety Category|
|"Mountain Abakan"||With a height of not more than 2.8-3 m, it has good resistance to frost||Mass 28-30 g, with a dense, orange-colored pulp||May||Unpretentious and highly resistant grade|
|"Pretty boy"||Medium growth, not more than 3.5 m high||A mass of 15-17 g, with a red blush, ripens in August||May-June||The period of fruiting enters the second year|
|"Amur"||Medium growth, dense crown, roundly elongated||Round-elongated, weighing no more than 25−26 g||Early flowering||The most promising variety of all newly created|
Noteworthy gardeners and varieties such as "Kigichinsky", "Golden Bone", "Honey", "Snezhinsky", "Uralets", who have proven themselves in the home gardening of the Siberian region.
About Siberian Apricot Varieties
Apricot trees grow very poorly and develop when planting and growing on heavy and poorly permeable air and water soils. Under the garden plantings, it is necessary to divert the most elevated areas, without the accumulation of cold air masses. Apricot belongs to the warm and light-loving fruit crops, poorly tolerating thickened plantings. Features of planting apricot seedlings in a region with adverse soil and climatic conditions are as follows:
- of all stone fruit orchards, apricot is the most warm and photophilous crop, therefore, planting is carried out on the most elevated and lighted place, and the holes are dug up in advance;
- it is advisable to lay garden plantings on the southern slopes, characterized by a steeper angle of incidence of sunlight and with natural protection from the negative effects of northern winds;
- planting should be done as early as possible, at the stage when the soil has thawed only 10−12 cm;
- preference should be given to the so-called "Michurinsky" planting principle, which involves planting in soil not enriched with fertilizers, which can significantly increase the frost resistance of a fruit tree;
- plants should be planted on earthen embankments, in the central part of which a special depression should be made, the size of which should correspond to the volume of the root system of the apricot seedling.
A prerequisite is tying the plant to a support, which can direct the growth of the apricot tree.
Caring for plants grown in difficult soil and climatic conditions has some characteristic features. Apricot has sufficient drought tolerance, but at the stage of laying the fruit buds, the garden crop must be provided not only with moisture, but also with the main nutrients.
Apricot: the secrets of growing in Siberia
It is very important to grow exclusively grafted plants, as root-growing seedlings die almost completely. It should be noted that apricot trees are very often affected by hawthorns in the Siberian region, and recently, such diseases as kleisterosporiosis have significantly spread in orchards, which implies timely and competent preventive measures.