The choice of potato varieties for the Urals and cultivation features

The choice of potato varieties for the Urals and cultivation features

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Potato varieties for the Urals are quite difficult to pick up. Many other vegetable crops that are successfully grown in neighboring areas show a very low survival rate here. This feature is due to abrupt climatic changes and the presence of sufficiently cold and gusty winds.

Grade Selection Requirements

Varieties of potatoes for growing in the Urals for a long time passed a very careful selection. Among the most adapted species are early ripe and mid-ripening, as well as universal varieties of potatoes. Such potatoes are characterized by a high level of unpretentiousness and are perfectly adapted to cultivation in rather difficult climatic and weather conditions.

It should be remembered that both new and traditional Belarusian potato varieties are not included in the list of varieties recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture for planting and growing in the Northern and Southern Urals. Good varieties are classified as zoned.

The best early grades

Early potatoes are usually divided into ultra-early, tubers which can be used in food 45-60 days after emergence, and early ripe with ripening in 60−70 days. In such varieties, ripening begins in July.

TitleTuber DescriptionPulp descriptionRipening periodSustainabilityProductivity
"Governor"Red peelWhite, starch up to 14%Early ripeningHighUp to 2 kg per bush
VinetaThe peel is slightly mesh yellowLight yellow, starch up to 15.2%EarlyDrought resistantD60 kg / 10 sq. m
"Lyubava"Red peelWhite, starch up to 16.9%Early ripeTo the causative agent of potato cancerUp to 400 kg / ha
"Bullfinch"Red peelThe pulp is white, starch up to 16%Early ripeTo the causative agent of potato cancerUp to 271 kg / ha
"Spring is white"White tubersThe pulp is white, starch up to 16%Ultra earlyTo cancer, highly resistant to macrosporiosisUp to 41 kg / 10 sq. m

The best mid-season varieties

Mid-early varieties of potatoes fully ripen after 70−80 days. As a rule, Ural potatoes of this ripening period are better stored and have a brighter taste and pronounced potato aroma during the heat treatment. The best mid-season varieties manage to form a decent crop even before the onset of a steady cooling in the Ural region.

TitleTuber DescriptionPulp descriptionRipening periodSustainabilityProductivity
"Crown"Light beigeWhite, starchiness up to 16%Mid earlyTo heat and droughtUp to 38 kg / 10 sq. m
"Lukyanovsky"Light beigeCream, starchiness up to 15%Mid earlyTo heat and drought, to mechanical damageUp to 45 kg / 10 sq. m
"Equator"PinkCream, starchiness up to 19%Mid-seasonTo the causative agent of potato cancerHigh
BezhitskyPinkWhite, starchiness up to 16%Mid earlyTo potato nematodeUp to 45 t / ha
OredezhskyYellowCream, starchiness up to 15%Mid earlyTo the causative agent of potato cancerHigh
"The effect"Light beigeWhite, starchiness up to 19%Mid earlyTo viral diseasesUp to 45 t / ha
"Aspia"Light beigeLight yellow, starchiness up to 14%Mid earlyTo potato nematodeUp to 44 t / ha

Universal varieties

Such potatoes, even under adverse weather and climatic conditions, are able to give a good harvest both when growing on personal plots and when cultivated on farm fields. Description of such varieties is known only to experienced gardeners and potato growers.

TitleTuber DescriptionPulp descriptionAppointmentSustainabilityProductivity
SpiridonRed, oval, with a smooth peel. Tuber up to 160 gYellow, with a starch content of 11.9-15.8%Table, matures in 90-110 daysTo the causative agent of potato cancer138-278 kg / ha
SanteYellow, oval, with smooth peellight yellow with a starch content of 10-14%Universal, matures in 80−90 daysTo cancer, potato nematode, late blight, viruses800-1000 g / bush

Features of planting and care

Agrotechnical methods of growing potatoes in the Urals have some fundamental differences that must be taken into account by potato growers when planting and in the process of caring for plants throughout the growing season. It is best to use for landing areas represented by light loam with a slightly acid reactionthat contain over 2% organic matter. It is recommended to use crop rotation with a plant such as clover, which should be plowed immediately before planting seed tubers.

In the Urals, potatoes should be planted no earlier than mid-May, when soil temperature exceeds +8 ° С. It is better to plant seed potatoes after the tubers are warmed up and germinated. Vernalized tubers sprout on the 8-10th day, without vernalization, seedlings appear only on the 18-22th day.

Potato: variety selection

When planting seed in this region, a shovel is not always used, and most often a hoe is preferred, and the optimal planting depth is 5-8 cm. The spaces between the rows should be a meter. Furrows should be directed from north to south, which is very important for proper lighting of plants.

During planting, it is necessary to treat the tubers with wood ash, which will help protect the seed from pests. Processed and sprouted tubers are laid in the furrows at the rate of four pieces per meter.

Seed spread over furrows must be covered with humus or well-rotted manure, and then garden soil. By means of a chopper, leveling of the surface of the site is carried out.

Crests formed during planting as a result of further hilling will grow and serve as additional protection for plants from adverse weather factors. Further care for potato planting is the timely implementation of key activities.

Care ActivitiesDatesFeatures
Wateringwhen the sprouts grow by 7-10 cm above the soil level, that is, approximately two weeks after mass shootsin hot and dry weather, use at least 12 liters of water per bush
at the budding phase, which marks the beginning of the tuber formation phase
at the stage of weight gain by tubers, which occurs in the Urals at the end of June – beginning of July
Weeding and cultivatingloosening at all stages of the growing season allows an increase in the flow of oxygen to the tubers, and weeding is carried out as weeds growsurface loosening of the soil, carried out to a depth of not more than 3 cm, is carried out before the appearance of the first shoots and is supplemented by weeding
Hillingit is advisable to carry out the first hilling after the appearance of the first three leaves, the second is carried out 2-3 weeks after the first, before the plant blooms, and the last before the tops are closedthe first method is raking soil from all sides towards the plant and forming them into one “bouquet”. The second method involves pushing the stems apart from each other, adding soil to the middle and raking it from the outside to the stems
Top dressingduring the seedling phase in the presence of pale green leaves and poor developmentfirst feeding: 10 l of water + 1 tbsp. l urea + 0.5 l mullein or 1 tbsp. l bird droppings
during buddingsecond feeding: 10 l of water + 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate + 2−3 tbsp. l ash
at the time of flowering potatoesthird feeding: 10 l of water + 2 tbsp. l superphosphate + 200 g mullein or chicken droppings
Disease preventionSpraying during the growing season: the first is prophylactic, the subsequent ones with an interval of 7-14 daysMeans "Pennkotseb", with a calculation of 400 l / ha or "Ditan M-45", with a calculation of 300−500 l / ha

About ten days before harvesting, the tops must be mowed at a height of 10-15 cm, which will reduce the damage to tubers during digging and accelerate the maturation of potatoes.

Ways to increase productivity

Currently, potato growers of the Urals practice several time-tested methods that can increase the yield of vegetables:

  • harvesting potatoes, which were planted with larger and more qualitatively sprouted planting material, is possible three weeks earlier, and the harvest itself will consist of more weighty tubers;
  • the destruction of peduncles on plants at the beginning of budding, which reduces the outflow of nutrients and increase the yield of potato tubers by 20–25%;
  • the use of modern means such as biological fertilizer "Urgas" based on the concentrate of bacteria "Baikal-EM 1", as well as the "Super" compost and Finnish complex non-chlorine fertilizers saturated with microelements, "Kemira Universal" and "Kemira";
  • it is possible to achieve high efficiency and a significant increase in the yield and quality of potatoes by laying organic components in all the spaces on the potato field.

In addition, it is very important to use seed for planting, which has passed not only the stages of heating, gardening and germination, but also has been treated with biofungicides and growth biostimulants.

How to plant potatoes

An insufficient amount of time is allotted to the growing season and the formation of a potato crop in the climatic and weather conditions of the Urals. Therefore, so that the yield of this popular vegetable crop is good and allows you to provide the whole family with high-quality, environmentally friendly products, you should not only choose the right variety, but also follow all agrotechnical requirements, as well as not neglect modern and highly effective means for feeding and protecting plants.