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Red currant or common currant (Ríbes rúbrum) is a small deciduous shrub from the family Gooseberries (Grossulariaceae). Proper processing and proper planting of red currants in the spring are very important for obtaining a productive berry culture in the conditions of home gardening. The plant is widespread in our country, in Ukraine and Belarus.
The height of an adult redcurrant plant is an average of one and a half meters. Relatively rare are lower and tall shrubs of red currant. Shoots have a gray or yellowish color. Wood is greenish in color, with a lighter core.
Leaves of a three- or five-lobed type, with serrated edges. Their surface is smooth and shiny. The underside of the leaves has a lighter color. The pubescence of the veins may be present. Flowers are small in size, yellow-green or reddish-brown, collected in a brush. The peak of flowering occurs in May. The fruits are represented by juicy berries collected in clusters.
When choosing a variety of red-fruited currants for cultivation in the conditions of home gardening, it should be remembered that the winter hardiness of the varieties depends on the origin of the planting material, the conditions for preparing the berry plant for winter, as well as the level of differentiation of the kidney buds and the weather conditions in the growing area.
Currently, in agriculture, about seventy varieties of such berry crops as red currants are actively cultivated. In home gardening, berry shrubs are most often grown by planting seedlings. Using planting material with a closed root system allows you to plant a plant in a permanent place with virtually no time limit.
Most often, berry crops are planted in spring or autumn. In the southern regions, autumn planting should be preferred, and in the northern regions, the berry culture planted in the spring is best established. For planting in the suburbs and the middle zone of our country, you can choose both the early spring and the first decade of autumn.
When choosing a sapling of red-fruited currants, it is necessary to pay special attention to the condition and appearance of the root system of the berry culture, which should be powerful and well developed, without the presence of roots rotted or frost-bitten in the winter. Slight detachment of the cortex on the branches is not critical.
If, after acquiring and until the moment of planting of berry bushes, a rather long storage is expected, then planting material should be placed in a dark and cool place without fail. Plants with an open root system are less resistant to adverse external influences, therefore, it is important to pre-wrap their roots with damp cloth or temporarily dig them into the ground. During transportation, it is necessary to protect the branches and root system from damage and breakage.
How to plant red currants
Landing by layering
One of the most reliable methods of propagation of red-fruited currants in home gardening is the standard instillation of cuttings from the uterine bush. Layers can be propagated in early spring. For this purpose, a thorough loosening of the soil is required around the bush selected for propagation. After loosening under the strongest and most well-developed young shoots, dig grooves with a depth of 6-8 cm and a length according to the size of the bent branch. Selected shoots need to be laid in prepared furrows and fixed on the soil with special hook-pins. The apical part of the shoots should remain above the surface of the soil.
After the height of the resulting shoots of red-fruited currants reaches 10-12 cm, they should be earthed to the top. Topping the soil to shoots should be done several times a season as they grow and develop. The soil above and around the layers should not be compacted or dry. In the last decade of September, it is necessary to cut off the attached branches from the parent plant and carefully dig them out of the ground. The division of the lay is carried out according to the number of rooted shoots. Powerful and well-developed layering can be landed on a permanent place.
How and where to plant properly
In order to properly plant a berry culture with seedlings and increase survival rates, as well as to obtain a normally developing and highly productive bush of red currant, it is necessary to correctly select a place for planting and conduct thorough preparation of the soil in the selected area. Bushes of red-fruited currants are planted obliquely so that three buds remain above the soil and three more buds are buried in the ground.
Beginners and insufficiently experienced gardeners are advised to use step-by-step instructions for planting young plants, which will achieve high results with minimal time and effort.
Step-by-step landing instructions
- For cultivation, it is recommended to select areas with a deep occurrence of groundwater. A year before planting, a standard amount of compost or rotted manure should be added to the ground.
- Before planting, seedlings should remove damaged or dry branches and roots.
- It is recommended to dip the root system into a “mash” of clay and warm water.
- It is necessary to prepare a pit for the plant. Its standard dimensions are approximately 45 x 45 cm or 45 x 55 cm.
- At the bottom of the planting pit, a mound of compost or rotted humus should be poured, and then you need to install a seedling there and straighten its root system.
- In the process of filling the root system with soil, gently shake the seedling in order to prevent the appearance of air pockets at the roots of the berry culture.
- The density of planting berry culture depends on the type and varietal characteristics of the plant. Spreading and tall varieties should be planted less frequently than plants with a compact crown shape. The average distance between the planted bushes of red-fruited currants is about 1-1.5 m.
- Proper planting involves deepening the root neck by about 6-8 cm.
- It is recommended to give preference to an inclined method of planting, which will allow to form a spreading bush with a wide base as soon as possible.
If it is necessary to obtain bushes of standard-type currant, it is recommended to plant a seedling without deepening, vertically placing it when planting. Having placed the seedlings, it is necessary to irrigate sufficiently abundantly, and then be sure to mulch the soil around the plants with rotted leaves, humus or compost, which will protect the soil from the rapid evaporation of moisture.
Red-fruited currants can be classified as quite unpretentious berry crops, so it is grown almost everywhere in our country. However, to obtain a good and annual yield, the plant needs competent care, which is based on tillage, watering, fertilizing and the destruction of weeds. It is necessary to start work on caring for bushes of red-fruited currants in the early spring. The standard package of activities includes:
- pruning, which is necessarily carried out before the stage of budding;
- thorough but shallow loosening of soil around the bushes;
- removal of all plant debris and weeds from near-stem circles;
- repair or installation of new supports to guide the growth of berry culture;
- the introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers at the rate of 45-50 g for each adult berry bush;
- mulching the soil in near-stem circles with a mixture based on peat and well-rotted manure.
How to prune red currants
If necessary, water-charging irrigation of plants should be carried out. It is timely to carry out preventive measures aimed at protecting berry plantings from the most common pathogenic microflora and plant parasites. These caring procedures guarantee currant health and high yield.