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It is unlikely that there will be a summer cottage area in Russia where carrots (Daucus) do not grow - perhaps the most common root crop in our country. Carrots are a very healthy crop rich in minerals and vitamins.
To get a tasty and full-fledged crop of carrots is possible only to those gardeners who follow the basic rules of its cultivation and properly carry out sowing. Planting carrots in the spring in the ground is a simple process, but it requires patience and certain knowledge.
Sowing time and seed preparation features
Germination of carrots and its taste depend on the choice of the right planting time: each species has its own ripening period. Carrots are propagated by seeds purchased or received from last year's crop, as well as by sowing the garden.
Planted seeds can be planted before winter and spring. The first method is suitable for areas with warm climatic conditions, and the second is suitable for aggressive climatic zones, where seeds under freezing snow can freeze. Landing should be carried out when the earth heats up to + 8 ... +10 ˚C, and the temperature of the medium is + 15 ... +17 ˚C (this time usually falls on May). Carrots should not be sown earlier (the exception is the southern regions), since its growth may slow down.
The correct preplant treatment of seed material, which is carried out in several ways, is very important:
- Rejection. Seeds are immersed for 10 hours in room temperature water: those that are unsuitable for planting float.
- To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, the seeds are placed on moistened gauze and left for several days. At a temperature of + 21 ... +24 ˚C seeds germinate quickly: after about 4-5 days, small roots appear in them.
- Soaking seeds in vodka. This procedure accelerates germination, and root crops are large.
- Seed pelleting. At the same time, planting material is enveloped with a special nutrient mixture, so that the seeds germinate better when planted under winter or spring. For a mixture of 100 g of seeds take 0.4 l of adhesive solution, 0.7 kg of dry peat; per 1 kg of mineral fertilizers - 200 g of zinc sulfate, 40 g of copper superphosphate and boric acid and 300 g of ammonium molybdenum acid each. The process of pelleting is carried out as follows: the seeds are disinfected, sorted by size and placed in a jar. Humus and peat are diluted with slaked lime and mineral fertilizers. Then an adhesive, peat is added to the seed jar and the vessel is thoroughly shaken. As a result, a film forms on the planting material, and the diameter of the seeds increases.
How to prepare carrot seeds for planting
Ground preparation and planting methods
Before sowing seeds into the soil, it is necessary to thoroughly prepare the soil: clean from fallen leaves, loosen, dig small grooves and thoroughly soak them with moisture. The seeds need to be buried no more than 3 cm (otherwise they may not rise), at a distance of 2 cm from each other. The optimal gap between the furrows is 15 cm. The seeding rate is about 3 kilograms of seeds per 1 hectare.
The growing popularity of growing carrots on a ribbon. This method is simple and convenient, as it eliminates the need to calculate the distance between the seeds. The tape with planting material is laid in a previously made groove, covered with earth, which is then rammed and watered. After some time, the paper tape dissolves under the action of water.
The best varieties of carrots
The best varieties for planting carrots in spring are the following:
- Losinoostrovskaya (Losinoostrovskaya). Tasty and sweet root vegetables of this carrot are used to prepare baby food, and the extract obtained from them helps to cleanse the skin. The variety has a long shelf life. Suitable for winter planting.
- Nantes (Naundes). The variety is suitable for dense soils. Root vegetables are delicious, up to 15 cm long.
- Incomparable (Incomparable). Juicy carrots with a long shelf life. Contains a large amount of carotene. Seedlings are quite high, seed germination is fast. For planting, you can use a seeder.
- Chantane (Shantanu). One of the best varieties for winter storage. Fruits can be consumed both fresh and cooked. There are practically no contraindications.
- Amsterdam (Amsterdam). It has a fast ripening period. Root vegetables are bright orange, very attractive in appearance, reach 17 cm in length.
All varieties of carrots have different ripening dates. Professional gardeners grow several types of plants at once to get a crop all year round.
How to choose a place for carrots
Most varieties prefer to grow in sunny areas: growing them in the shade reduces the number of seedlings and reduces the taste characteristics of root crops. So choose a site that is lit throughout the day: so the leaves of the carrots will be green and the fruits will be juicy.
Be sure to observe crop rotation. It is undesirable to plant this culture on the same site for several years in a row.
The best predecessors of carrots are onions, cabbage, garlic, potatoes, tomatoes and cucumbers. But after dill, parsley, parsnip, celery and beets it is not worth planting it.
How to germinate seeds and care for crops
The germination of planting material is verified by washing it in boiling water: seeds ready for germination are barked after this treatment after a few days. After that, they are mixed with sand and scattered in the garden. Shoots appear after about 12 days.
The easiest way to carry out the germination of seeds (especially Dutch) in a linen bag.
- Seeds are placed in a bag and buried in the ground.
- The place is marked and covered with snow.
- Two weeks later, the bag is dug up, and the germinated seeds are transplanted into the soil.
This method is also used for hardening planting material.
Carrots require careful care. Immediately after the seedlings germinate, the soil is loosened to remove young weed from it, which negatively affects the development of carrots. In the future, weeding of landings is carried out regularly.
The soil should have been light and loose. Very dense soil with a crust leads to curvature of the fruit, which does not greatly affect the size, but significantly spoils the presentation of carrots. Therefore, loosening the earth is a mandatory procedure.
For the normal growth of carrots and the formation of beautiful and large root crops, it is necessary to thin it: first in the phase of the first sheet, and then in the second.
At each stage of growing carrots, watering is mandatory. Due to lack of moisture, root crops can grow sluggish and with a bitter aftertaste. The earth must be moistened well, to the root crops.
In the period from sowing to harvest, carrots are fertilized only twice: the first feeding is carried out one month after the emergence of seedlings, the second - two months later. As fertilizers use special liquid solutions.
How to plant carrot seeds
Growing carrots in the open field is a difficult task, but it is quite feasible. Providing the plant with the necessary care, you will become the owner of a crop of delicious and fresh root crops.