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How to propagate irises by seeds and grow at home

How to propagate irises by seeds and grow at home


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Real lovers of this flower are engaged in the propagation of irises by seeds. They are attracted by the possibility of obtaining their exclusive varieties. Flowers are pollinated artificially, choosing the specimens they like. Siberian, Japanese, marsh, varietal irises are propagated by seeds. Flowering during seed reproduction has to wait 2-3 years.

How do irises reproduce?

Usually summer residents resort to vegetative propagation of rhizome and bulbous varieties of irises. Bulb varieties (iridodictium, xyphyum, juno) are propagated by small bulbs. Overgrown 2-3-year-old nests are dug in summer. After drying, large specimens are stored in the refrigerator until autumn. Children are immediately planted for growing.

Rhizome varieties of irises are propagated vegetatively (by buds, rhizomes) and seeds. To obtain especially valuable varieties, the kidneys are used. The washed and dried rhizome is divided into pieces. One kidney and several roots are left on each.

Most often, rhizome irises are propagated by dividing the bush. Do this in the fall or spring.

3-4-year-old bushes are planted. They are dug out with a shovel or pitchfork. Young 1-2-year-old underground shoots are selected for reproduction. There should be several buds on the cut, a fan of leaves (5-7 pieces). The tops of the leaves are cut off, leaving 10-15 cm.

The seed propagation method is used by flower growers engaged in breeding. Ripe seeds are harvested immediately after flowering. They are large, formed in triangular capsule fruits. They are sown in open ground in late autumn or spring. They practice growing seedlings of irises from seeds at home.

How to grow irises from seeds?

Varietal irises are propagated by seeds. At the same time, the preservation of parental species characteristics is not guaranteed. This is due to the fact that varieties are obtained by hybridization using different species and, in addition, flowers can be pollinated by other varieties of irises growing nearby.

Selection and preparation of planting material

Mature seeds of irises are large, light brown. They are formed in fruits - three-celled capsules. The fruit is formed after the irises have faded. It takes 2-2.5 months to ripen the seeds. On those bushes that they decided to propagate by seeds, the baskets are left, all the rest are cut off.

When the seeds ripen, the fruit splits open. Gardeners put small gauze (tulle) bags on the boxes so that the seeds do not fall out on the ground. Dry boxes need to be cut, broken, seeds are poured into prepared packages. Store in a dark, cool and dry place.

Growing time

Autumn planting is the least time consuming. They use seeds only of the current year, last year's are not suitable, because the germination rate is low. You can sow at any time in the fall. In those regions where the snow cover is weak, the ridge for the winter needs to be covered with leaves, straw or covering material.

In spring, iris seeds are planted in the ground when the soil warms up to 10-15 ° C. Before that, they are stratified. At home, you can grow seedlings. In this case, the stratified iris seeds should be sown in February, and with the onset of warm May days, the seedlings should be transplanted into the garden.

Selecting and preparing a landing site

The flower culture prefers neutral and slightly alkaline soils, loves light, but can grow in light partial shade. Preference should be given to elevated places protected from the wind. Irises are suitable for weed-free garden soil. When digging, make:

  • clay, peat, humus in sandy soil;
  • dolomite flour into peat soil;
  • river sand, peat, humus into clay soil.

Sowing seedlings

In the fall, the seeds are sown dry. The soil is not watered after planting. The seeds are buried by 2 cm. They are planted in rows located at a distance of 25 cm from each other. The planting step is 10 cm. The ridge is covered with 2 layers of lutrasil for the winter. When planting in spring, the soil is watered, the seeds are laid out in the furrows when it settles.

Further care

Shoots appear in the spring. Caring for them is simple. It is necessary to regularly remove weeds and loosen the soil shallowly. Plugged weeds can be left in the aisles. They will protect the soil from drying out. You need to water the seedlings in the morning before 11 o'clock. Water should not come into contact with the leaves. Before transplanting to a permanent place, the seedlings can be fed with Kemira Lux or Kemira Universal complex fertilizer. From pests, the soil is sprinkled with sifted ash after watering.

Transfer to a permanent place

A week before transplanting irises, prepare the site. The soil is dug to a depth of 25-30 cm, 8-10 kg of humus are applied for each square meter of the ridge, 2 tbsp. l. superphosphate, 2 tbsp. ash. If the acidity is high, add dolomite flour.

You can plant seedlings in a permanent place after the appearance of the 3rd leaf. The bushes are dug with a lump of earth, planted in prepared holes. Landing schemes are applied:

  • step 60 cm for tall varieties;
  • 40 cm for medium-sized in mixborders;
  • 25 cm for dwarf irises.

The nuances of caring for a plant in the open field

Care for adult specimens is minimal. Hobbyists grow 100 of them in their gardens. With the right choice of place and planting, the perennial blooms profusely and annually.

Watering and fertilizing

In the absence of rain, they are moistened once a week. Swamp species love abundant and more frequent watering. They can grow in water. Organic matter in the form of fresh manure cannot be used as fertilizer. For a perennial in a season, 3 additional fertilizing with any complex fertilizer for flowering plants is enough.

Pruning

Flowering begins in spring. With a large number of varieties, it lasts until mid-summer. The decorativeness of the flower garden is maintained by pruning faded peduncles. Cut them off at the level of the leaves. The yellow leaves are cut near the ground.

Preparing for winter

The leaves are cut at a height of 15 cm from the ground, a fan of leaves is obtained. The soil is sprinkled with ash and covered with leaves or spruce branches. Organic mulch is a good substitute for any commercial covering material.

Features of growing at home

Iris seeds have a coarse shell. In order for the sprout to be able to break through it, stratification is carried out:

  • take a disposable plastic container with a lid and a piece of cloth (gauze);
  • the fabric is moistened, seeds are wrapped in it, placed in a container;
  • the container is placed in the refrigerator for 2 months;
  • the fabric is occasionally moistened.

In February, stratified iris seeds are sown for seedlings. They are planted in a common container 15-20 cm high or in separate cups. Germinated in fertile garden soil or a mixture of peat and sand. Some gardeners germinate seeds in orchid growing medium. The seeds are buried by 1.5-2 cm. Shoots appear in a week.

In spring, the days are short, so cups with iris seedlings are placed under the lamp, the seedlings are illuminated in the morning and in the evening. The soil is moistened in moderation. Irises do not like waterlogging. Before transplanting into the ground, the seedlings are fed with complex fertilizer. In May-June, seedlings can be planted in open ground.


Watch the video: How to Plant, Grow and Care for IRIS - The Complete GUIDE (November 2022).