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Beloved walnut varieties differ from each other in terms of ripening, weight of fruits, strength of the peel and other characteristics. It seemed that breeders would not be able to diversify this plant too much, but such conclusions were hasty. Now nuts are successfully grown not only in the south, but also in the middle lane. The abundance of varieties allows gardeners to choose a plant for their individual needs and requests.
The walnut is a large deciduous tree with well-developed roots. The fruits are formed in the form of dry drupes. When ripe, they dry out and crack. The size and shape of the nuts depends on the varietal characteristics of the tree.
Walnut belongs to warm and moisture-loving crops that fully develop and yield crops only in warm climatic conditions. It is preferable to select the soil with good moisture permeability. In the climate of the middle zone, not all varieties of walnuts are capable of ripening, therefore, when choosing a seedling for a site, it is imperative to study its characteristics and ripening time.
Now breeders have already developed many varieties with increased frost resistance, improved taste characteristics, and immunity to diseases.
The best varieties
Walnuts have been grown in the gardens of both amateur and professional farmers for quite some time. From their personal experience, it was possible to select those varieties that are most worthy of attention.
Dawn of the East
An early species intended for cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory. The first harvest is removed 3.5-4 years after planting a seedling on the site. Full ripening occurs in the last decade of September. Nuts are not large, weighing up to 10 g. Up to 24 kg of harvest is harvested from each adult tree. Average frost and disease resistance.
Recognized as the best walnut, oriented to growing in amateur gardens of the Kuban.
Walnut with medium early ripening. Ripening begins in mid-September. The tree grows up to 5 m high and has a strong crown. The first harvest is feasted on 4-5 years after the planting of the seedling. The fruits are large, weighing up to 13 g, with a thin shell. Up to 23 kg of fruits are removed from each plant. It is successfully grown by farmers on an industrial scale, has increased drought resistance and immunity.
Walnut Five Years
This variety is new and is still being tested. Distinctive features are increased winter hardiness and productivity. Under industrial cultivation conditions, it shows good disease resistance. The type of ovary formation is apical-lateral, the first fruits are removed 3.5-4 years after planting the seedling. Harvesting takes place at the end of September. Up to 21 kg of nuts are removed from each plant. The weight of each of them reaches 9 g. The variety is suitable for cultivation in the Kuban.
The variety is focused on growing in a southern climate. Differs in stable productivity. Up to 23 kg of nuts are removed from each tree. The location of the fruits is crown. Not a frost-resistant species, but immunity to diseases and pests is high.
An adult nut does not exceed 5.5 m in height. The first harvest gives 3-4 years after planting on the site. The ovaries are formed by tassels, each of which contains 3-8 fruits. The weight of each fruit reaches 11 g. An adult tree gives up to 30 kg of harvest per season. Resistance to pathogens is high, not frost-resistant.
A vigorous variety with a massive spreading crown. The walnut is characterized by increased drought resistance, but its winter hardiness is below average. Subject to the conditions of agricultural technology, the first harvest is feasted 4 years after planting the seedling. Formation of apical ovaries. It is distinguished by excellent taste characteristics and large size of fruits, the weight of which reaches 12 g. Up to 23 kg of harvest are harvested from each adult tree.
The tree is undersized, its height does not exceed 2.5 m, the crown is compact. Fruits weigh up to 12 g. The shell is durable; when crushed, the kernel is taken out entirely. The crop is harvested in the 2nd-4th decade of September. Recommended for industrial cultivation. Up to 50 centners of nuts are removed from 1 hectare of area. Average frost resistance.
Low-growing hybrid walnut, the height of which does not exceed 2.5 m. Bred on the basis of the popular Ideal variety. Fruiting begins 2 years after the seedling is planted. The fruits are tied with tassels. The trees are planted according to the 3 x 3 m scheme. It has good winter hardiness and resistance to pathogens.
The variety was recently bred. A distinctive feature is the increased resistance to disease. The nut is winter-hardy. In 2015 he got into the State Register. Recommended for growing in private gardens. The plant tolerates a decrease in temperature indicators to -37 C, easily restores the crown after freezing. They feast on the crop 6 years after planting the seedling. Each tree gives up to 20 kg of fruits per season, each of them weighs up to 25 g. The shell is thin, easily destroyed. Taste characteristics are assessed as dessert and deserve a mark of 5 points.
The nut passes the state test. The height of the tree is large, it has a massive dense crown, which requires mandatory thinning. Fruiting begins 4 years after the tree is planted. The harvest is enjoyed at the end of September. Fruit weight reaches 13 g. Taste and presentation are at a high level. An adult tree gives up to 20 kg of nuts per season.
The variety is characterized by increased drought resistance, not susceptible to fungal diseases.
A fast-growing tall variety with a massive crown. Comes into fruiting 4 years after planting on the site. High frost resistance, simultaneous bisexual flowering. The harvesting process takes place in the last decade of September. Up to 22 kg of nuts are removed from each tree per season. Recommended for cultivation in the climatic conditions of the North Caucasus. Possesses increased drought resistance.
The tree is tall, massive, reaching 10 m in height. It begins to give off crops 4 years after the planting was carried out on the site. The harvest period falls in the last decade of September. The fruits are small, with a thin shell. When peeled, the core splits in half. Distinctive features of the variety are drought and frost resistance, as well as resistance to common diseases and pests.
The dwarf tree is characterized by excellent cold resistance and stable high yields. The variety is early maturing. The height of an adult nut does not exceed 3.5 m. Fruits are feasted 3 years after planting the seedling. Fruits are small in size, tied with tassels of 8 pieces each.
A tall, mid-season variety with a sprawling spherical crown. Fruiting is stable. The mass of one Bukovinsky nut reaches 18 g, in rare cases it reaches 30 g. A distinctive feature is increased winter hardiness, good disease resistance. With the seed method of cultivation, varietal properties are transferred perfectly.
The height of the tree of this variety exceeds 6 m. It begins to bear fruit in 4 years after planting. An adult plant per season gives up to 25 kg of nuts, each of which weighs up to 13 g. Winter hardiness and resistance to pathogens are high. Recommended for cultivation on farms for industrial purposes.
Harvesting of nuts of this variety falls on the end of September, which makes it possible to classify it as a mid-season variety. The height of the tree reaches 6 m, the crown is massive, dense. The crop is removed regularly from the 4th year of the seedling's life. Each adult plant produces up to 28 kg of small nuts. The shell breaks down easily. Frost resistance is excellent, but disease resistance is average.
The walnut is obtained by improving the characteristics of the Ideal variety. The frost resistance indicators remained the same as in the parent species. The height of the tree reaches 7 m, its crown is compact. Often planted not only as a fruit plant, but also as an ornamental plant. Fruiting occurs 5 years after the planting of the seedling. Each fruit weighs about 30 g. Each plant is harvested up to 100 kg.
Memory of Minov
A variety of Belarusian selection, it is considered a large-fruited species with an average ripening period. A tree with a massive crown, tall. Male and female inflorescences bloom at the same time. The type of ovary formation is apical. It starts bearing fruit in 4-5 years after planting a tree. Ripening of the Minov variety occurs in the last decade of September. Fruits weigh up to 19 g. The shell is thin, easily destroyed.
The variety is tall, has a massive dense crown. In damp summer conditions, it suffers from brown spot. Nuts weigh up to 19 g. When breaking the shell, it is possible to get the whole kernel.
Criteria for the selection of varieties
Each gardener selects a variety of nuts to suit his needs, growing conditions and climate features in the region. There are many criteria that must be met for a particular tree species selected for a particular site.
Winter hardy varieties
This criterion is decisive when selecting a nut for cultivation in the middle lane. These climatic conditions for the southern plant are considered harsh, therefore not every hybrid is able to take root there, even if it is organized a good shelter. Only a few varieties can meet the increased requirements of the changeable climate of the middle zone.
In another way, these varieties of nuts are characterized as such, in which the lateral type of fruiting. The lateral view is ideal for breeders. The advantage of such plants is that the fruits are able to form not only on the tops of mature shoots, but also on young twigs. This ability significantly increases the productivity of plants with lateral ovary formation.
Any gardener who is planting a new seedling on his site wants to quickly enjoy the fruits of his labor. In this case, preference is given to early-growing varieties. Such nuts bear the first fruits within 4 years after planting them in the garden. Productivity, taste and characteristics of the fruit are at a high level.
Trees of small height allow not only planting more plants in a small area, but also greatly facilitate the harvesting process. With compact dimensions, they give a good harvest of high-quality fruits.
For different regions of Russia
In addition to all other characteristics, there are varieties of nuts, zoned for a specific region. As a rule, these are the fruits of the labor of local breeders. They are genetic inherent in certain indicators, thanks to which they will be a priority in a given area. It can be increased cold resistance, drought resistance, resistance to certain diseases.
Such varieties can be grown exclusively in regions with a warm climate (for example, the Krasnodar Territory). Otherwise, the crop will not ripen. The advantage of late nuts is good disease resistance, large fruit size, keeping quality of the harvested crop, excellent taste of fruits. As a rule, they are not fast-growing.
In addition to the listed criteria for choosing walnut varieties for the garden, there are many more parameters. It can be:
- fruit size;
- method of forming ovaries;
- shell thickness;
- spreading of the crown.
The specifics of planting and care
Walnuts are planted exclusively in well-lit areas. Any slope, except for the south-west or south, is suitable for planting. In these places, the earth warms up faster in spring, which provokes early awakening and reduces winter hardiness. Planting of seedlings is carried out according to the scheme of 8 x 10 m. Also a possible option for planting is 10 x 12 m. The plant prefers loose soil, with good air permeability.
Walnut care consists in the timely introduction of fertilizing, irrigation, molding and sanitary pruning of the crown. It is advisable to mulch the soil in the near-trunk circle.