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Description and characteristics of the Veteran apple variety, planting, growing and care

Description and characteristics of the Veteran apple variety, planting, growing and care


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The apple-tree of the Veteran variety belongs to the early-growing winter hybrids. Due to its high yield, the hybrid quickly spread throughout Russia.

The history of selection of the early-growing variety Veteran

The winter apple variety Veteran was obtained by Russian breeders in 1961 with free pollination of the King variety.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of the Veteran hybrid include:

  • early maturity;
  • yield;
  • storage duration after harvest;
  • versatility of use.

Among the shortcomings, the risk of scab is distinguished if the weather is wet for a long time.

Description of the tree

Before buying a seedling, you should study all the characteristics of the plant.

Barrel height

Apple tree Veteran belongs to medium-sized hybrids. The trunk of a tree grows on average about 3-4 m.

Crown diameter

Crohn medium thickened, not wide. It resembles a regular ball in shape.

Annual growth

The annual growth is average, the tree grows by about 5-7 cm per year.

Appearance and taste of fruits

Apples have a rich red-scarlet skin color. The pulp is juicy, greenish-white, tastes more sweet. The fruits are round in shape. The skin is dense in structure, you can see a white waxy coating.

The tasting score of the fruit is 4.4 points out of 5.

Growing conditions

Apple tree Veteran does not belong to capricious varieties and you will not have to make a lot of efforts to grow a seedling. It is enough to plant a tree correctly and pay attention to caring for an already mature plant.

Specifications

Another important point that must be studied by summer residents before buying seedlings is technical characteristics. The technical characteristics include yield, resistance to drought and frost, as well as immunity to diseases of fruit crops.

Disease and pest resistance

The apple-tree of the Veteran variety is characterized by weak resistance to scab, especially if there is high humidity for a long time. The resistance of the tree to other diseases is high. Also, pests can be found on the apple tree, especially aphids. Therefore, as a preventive measure for the appearance of insects, every autumn the leaves are removed from the site, and the soil around the trunks is dug to a depth of 15-20 cm.

Frost tolerance and drought tolerance

The Veteran hybrid belongs to varieties that do not tolerate severe frosts well. Planting seedlings is recommended in regions with mild winters. In the north, the plant may not take root due to the harsh winters. The most favorable temperature in winter is considered to be from -20 to -25 degrees.

The plant tolerates drought more easily than frosts. You can not water the apple tree for a long time in the heat. But if the drought lasts a very long time, in addition to the main irrigation, it is recommended to carry out a number of additional irrigations.

Pollination and yield

The older the tree, the higher its yield. Apple trees up to 10 years old give 20-30 kg of fruit per season. Apple trees, whose age exceeds 15 years, yield from 45 kg of fruits in one season. To increase yields, top dressing is regularly applied to the soil.

To increase yields, you will have to plant pollinating varieties of winter or autumn ripening next to the apple tree. The hybrid belongs to early-growing varieties, since fruiting begins in the 3-4th year after planting the seedling. Productivity is kept at a high level every year.

Transportability and storage of fruits

One of the advantages of this variety is transportability. The fruits remain intact even during long journeys. In order to keep apples as fresh as possible, they are placed in a cool place with high humidity. Under the right conditions, apples will be stored until spring.

Landing rules

Planting an apple tree Veteran is no different from planting other varieties.

Preparation of seedlings

Before planting in a permanent place, the apple tree seedling is dipped in a growth activator. This measure will allow the tree to quickly take root in a new place. Immediately before planting, to protect the roots, the rhizome is dipped in a liquid clay solution for 30-40 seconds. And then immediately planted in the prepared hole.

Soil composition

The apple-tree of the Veteran variety is undemanding to the soil. Light, fertile soils are best suited for the plant. For example, loamy or sandy loam. The seedling grows well on black soil. Acidity is neutral or slightly acidic. Veteran grows poorly on clay types of soils.

Well schemes and sizes

The holes for the apple tree seedling are prepared in advance, 2-3 weeks in advance. A hole is dug to a depth of 1 m and a width of 80 cm. The distance between the seedlings is left from 3 to 4 m. The higher and wider the neighboring trees, the more it is worth leaving the distance between the trees.

Landing technology

For 2-3 weeks, dig a hole and mix the topsoil with manure and wood ash. Then they transfer it to the bottom. Landing scheme:

  • Drive a strong stake into the center of the hole.
  • Place the seedling and gently straighten the roots.
  • Dig in with soil and tamp near the trunk.
  • Tie the apple tree to the stake so that the trunk remains straight.

At the end of planting, pour plenty of warm water over the hole.

Seasonal care basics

Without attention, any fruit tree will yield less yield than if it was regularly tended. Apple tree care includes fertilization, watering and crown formation. Disease prevention is also important.

Watering

The apple tree does not need frequent watering. During the fruiting season, it is enough to water the tree four times so that it has enough moisture. Irrigation of the apple tree from spring to autumn:

  • The first time the plant is moistened in the spring, when bud formation begins.
  • The second time the apple tree is watered during flowering.
  • The third watering is carried out with the onset of the fruiting period.
  • The last time the soil near the apple tree is irrigated in the fall, after the harvest and the onset of cold weather.

If there is heat and drought outside for a long time, you can additionally water the plant.

Soil care and feeding

Before each watering, it is advisable to pre-weed the soil and remove weeds. So the soil is also saturated with oxygen.

With the onset of the growing season, nitrogen and organic fertilizers are introduced into the soil.

Nitrogen helps to activate the growth of leaves and buds. When buds begin to form on the tree, phosphorus and potassium are added to the soil. From organic matter, infusions on weed grass, wood ash and bone meal are used. Before the onset of cold weather, the earth is mixed with manure or chicken droppings.

Pruning and shaping the crown

If you don't cut the crown regularly, the apple tree will overgrow very quickly and yield less harvest. Form the crown of the apple tree in the second year. Branches are cut on the tree, only 3-4 skeletal ones are left. Then, every year, part of the young shoots and shoots are cut off. The formation of the crown is carried out in the spring. Sanitary pruning is carried out in the fall. In the process, dry, diseased or damaged branches are removed. The cut sites are disinfected in both cases.

Preventive treatment

As a preventive measure against insects and diseases, every spring the apple tree is treated with Bordeaux liquid or copper-containing preparations. After 2 weeks, spraying is repeated. If insects have already appeared on the tree, use soap solutions or chemicals.

Preparing the tree for winter

Before the onset of winter, the soil near the trunk is mulched, the layer of mulch should not be less than 15 cm. The lower part of the trunk is tied with pine branches so that mice do not gnaw the bark.


Watch the video: Old Apple Tree Pruning with Orchard Educator Bob Lever (September 2022).