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Brown spot appears on various plants; apple trees are also at risk. Compared with late blight, the disease is not so serious. If all conditions are created for the development of brown spotting, half of the crop will die.
What is apple phyllostictosis?
Phylostictosis or brown spot is a fungal disease. Microorganisms in the process of activity create brown spots on the leaves of the apple tree. The likelihood of developing phyllostictosis on apple trees increases in the middle of summer. In regions with a warm climate, you can notice the appearance of brown spot at the end of May, in such places, fruit trees suffer most from the disease.
Causes of the appearance of brown spots on the leaves of a tree
They are divided into two groups:
In the first case, the disease occurs as a result of the weakening of the body. Various fungi from the genus Phyllosticta are external factors in the development of brown spotting. Moreover, brown spot is found not only on apples, but also on pears and quince.
The pathogen begins to develop when suitable weather conditions occur. It should be warm outside and high humidity.
Winter is not terrible for fungi, as they can calmly wait out the cold season in order to infect as many plantations as possible next season with renewed vigor.Late blight and brown spot cannot exist with each other on the same plant.
Signs and symptoms
In mid-May, the leaves of the apple tree are covered with small spots. Over time, they become blurry and acquire a brown tint. The spots have a brown rim. At the end of summer, the middle of the spot brightens. The leaf plate becomes thin and covered with black pycnidia. In regions with a cold climate, the development of symptoms is observed later. Despite the fact that the disease is not so active, the infection does not leave the trees.
Preparations for protection
Spraying with fungicides or antibiotics will help solve the problem. There are many drugs that fight not only phyllostictosis.
In the composition of the drug, the active ingredient is difenoconazole. Benefits of the fungicide:
- effect after the first application;
- fast penetration into the plant;
- providing protection for a long time;
- slows down the formation of spores, which makes their germination impossible.
Raek is presented in the form of a liquid. 2 drug cubes are diluted in 10 l of water. An apple tree, sick with brown spot, is sprayed at the time of bud break. The treatment procedure is repeated during the budding period.
You can fight phyllostictosis with the help of another equally effective drug - "Fitolavina". It is an antibacterial agent with fungicidal properties. The active ingredient is phytobacteriomycin.
The main advantage of "Fitolavin" is a wide spectrum of action, but there is also a drawback. As a result of use, the drug accumulates in plants and trees. Therefore, it is recommended to use it if the infection has reached a large scale. Spraying is carried out long before harvesting.
The drug for combating phyllostictosis is included in the group of strobilurins. Benefits of the fungicide:
- acts systemically;
- evenly distributed throughout the sheet;
- the liquid on the leaves is not washed off by rains;
- continues to operate with temperature drops;
- destroys fungi and other pathogens.
Treatment of brown spot on apple trees with this drug can have negative consequences for a person. Direct contact with skin and inhalation of vapors leads to the development of allergic reactions. If it is necessary to cure apple trees from brown spot, it is recommended to alternate "Strobi" with other preparations. Thus, it will be possible to avoid the emergence of resistance of the mushrooms.
"But" for spraying deprives microorganisms of the ability to breathe. This leads to the fact that the fungi stop growing and die. It is used in rainy weather, as it is not washed off with wet streams.
Such a drug is recommended in cases where it is urgently necessary to take measures to combat fungi, especially if it is cold outside.
"But" is suitable for processing affected apple trees, if the weather is constantly changing.
In addition to chemicals, you should pay attention to the funds that are at hand. Common and most popular recipes for combating brown spot:
- A solution containing 20 drops of iodine, 5 liters of water and 500 ml of milk.
- 1 liter of whey per bucket of water.
- A decoction of coal ash - 10 liters of water and 500 g of ash. The mixture is boiled for 25 minutes.
- Potassium permanganate solution. Potassium permanganate is added to a bucket of water in such an amount that the liquid becomes light pink in color.
- 500 g of chopped cloves of garlic and arrows of a green plant, infused in 10 liters of water.
As a result of preparing all the recipes, you should get a liquid. The finished solution is sprayed with infected apple trees. You will need simple ingredients to prepare them.
Is involved in many activities. Gardeners at times underestimate the importance of tree pruning. Sanitary removal of branches is necessary, since they destroy the affected ones along with the dry ones. Healthy branches are also pruned for thinning to provide more space.
Pruning for the purpose of thinning has a beneficial effect on the processes of photosynthesis in the leaves of the apple tree, increasing them. It is also useful, as ventilation of the branches of the crown increases. The sparse structure of the apple tree is a guarantee that much fewer foci of infection will form. Direct access of sunlight to the branches kills the remains of the fungus.
To protect apple trees from brown spot, be sure to destroy fallen leaves. This can be done in several ways. Fallen leaves are used for composting or simply buried in a trench. To make it easier to work with them, they are burned.
The drugs that are used to combat apple trees are also used as a prophylaxis. The only difference is the dilution of smaller doses. Treating healthy leaves will eliminate the likelihood of developing disease.
Spraying with chemicals is desirable after harvest - in the fall. The procedure should not be postponed until spring. If the apple trees feel healthy before the onset of cold weather, this will help to avoid the development of the disease in the new season. The leaves of the tree will not become stained, and the person will be able to harvest.
Fertilizers and insect pests
An important role is played by feeding the apple trees. But even with such an event, a person can make a mistake. It is necessary to observe the dosage of the components of the fertilizer that is introduced. To increase the resistance of fruit trees to brown spot, the presence of nitrogen in fertilizers is imperative.
Another preventive measure against brown spot is the destruction of insects. The pests suck the sap from the tree, thus spreading the infection. Thrips and aphids are especially threatening.
How to deal with the harvest
At an advanced stage of the disease, the most aggressive fungicides are used. If the treatment with solutions occurs shortly before harvesting, it is better to refrain from eating the fruits. They do not refuse spraying even in the fall, as this will ensure the fruiting of the apple tree next year.
Apples can be eaten if the fungicide treatment was carried out long before they were harvested. Over time, they get rid of accumulated harmful substances. That is why apple trees are sprayed during the budding period.
If you do not take any measures, a person can lose half of the garden harvest. Fallen apples, as well as leaves, are disposed of. Fruits can carry a source of infection, which will cause disease to appear next year.
Brown spot or phyllostictosis is one of the diseases that affect not only the appearance of fruit trees, but also apples. To preserve the yield and the ability of the trees to bear fruit, it is recommended to carry out regular processing. Chemicals and traditional medicine products are used as spraying agents.