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One of the diseases that can affect the apple tree is cancer. If the disease is not recognized in time, the tree dies. In addition, the infection quickly spreads to neighboring fruit trees. Therefore, it is important to know the first signs of damage, to find out the cause of the appearance and how to deal with each stage of cancer. Effective remedies can be bought in a store or made on your own according to folk recipes.
Varieties of the disease
There are several types of cancer that affect apple trees.
Initially, small black dots become visible on the trunk. Gradually they grow, the bark turns black and falls off. Leaves are also covered with spots, which leads to their premature fall.
Ordinary or European
Dark spots with a white sheen cover the roots and branches of trees. Then growths of a dark brown color appear, the bark begins to darken and fall off.
After infection, growths form on the roots, which rot and spread a large number of bacteria. Most often, this type of cancer leads to the death of the tree.
This type of cancer most often affects fruit ovaries and branches. Leaves become stained, curl and dry out. The fruits darken, shrivel and rot.
Who is the causative agent
Cancer of the apple tree is caused by bacteria and fungi that have entered the damaged places on the tree.
Factors and optimal conditions for infection
There are several provoking factors, as a result of which the risk of contracting apple cancer increases.
In most cases, cancer infection occurs in early spring. Active reproduction of the fungus occurs at an air temperature above +22 degrees. Spores survive even in temperatures of +40 degrees.
Poor quality trees
Older trees are more susceptible to cancer. Such apple trees have reduced immunity, so there is no strength to resist infection. Active reproduction of the fungus begins.
Spores quickly spread to neighboring healthy trees in a gust of wind.
Improper care or lack of care
Improper care is one of the main causes of cancer. Irregular watering, lack of fertilizers, violation of the technique of pruning branches provoke the disease... Apple trees, which are affected by pests and diseases, are most susceptible to cancer.
Excessive care of apple trees often becomes the cause of cancer:
- With an excess of micronutrients in the soil, a breeding ground for pathogens is created.
- With frequent watering, the plant's immunity decreases.
Therefore, it is so important to establish a regime for caring for fruit plantings.
Saplings should be planted according to all the rules:
- Maintain a certain distance between trees.
- Prepare the landing pit correctly.
- Prepare the soil.
A drainage layer is laid at the bottom of the planting pit, nutrients are introduced. If the soil is acidic, liming is carried out.
Description of the course of the disease
Apple cancer is difficult to recognize in the early stages of development. All trees should be inspected periodically for unusual occurrences.
What are the signs of a disease diagnosed
If the disease develops, unusual symptoms may appear on different parts of the apple tree. The tree begins to wilt and shed its leaves.
If wounds and cracks are found on the barrel, they should be examined carefully. In cancer, black dots are located in circles around the wound.
With the active development of infection, the symptoms are easily distinguished. The bark is covered with deep depressions of purple and black. The lesion site is deformed, cracked.
During the flowering period, a sign of cancer will be a change in the appearance of the inflorescences. The petals are covered with brown spots and stripes. Inside, the inflorescence begins to turn black and twist.
Small brown spots begin to appear on the fruits, which gradually become larger. The sign becomes noticeable only when the fruits enter the ripening stage.
As a result, the entire insides of the apples rot and they fall to the ground. Not all rotten apples fall. Even after the leaves have completely fallen off, the black, shriveled fruits hang from the branches.
Already during the leafing season in spring, spots become noticeable on the leaves. At first, the spots are small in size with a brownish-red tint. As the disease progresses, the spots grow larger and darker. The leaves dry up and fall off. The tree begins to abruptly shed its leaves long before the onset of cold weather. As a result, the quality of the crop is reduced. Fruits rot and are not stored much.
What is dangerous for a tree
The disease leads to a decrease in fruiting, a deterioration in the quality of fruits. If untreated, the tree gradually dies.
Is the disease dangerous for humans?
For the human body, apple cancer does not pose any danger. The apples of diseased trees can be eaten as long as they are clean and have not started to rot.
Apple tree treatment methods
What to do if a problem is found? You should immediately start looking for an effective way to fight. There are a number of steps to take to deal with cancer.
The diseased bark is removed. Using a knife, cut out the entire area, grabbing about 2 cm of healthy bark in a circle. Be sure to cut off dry, affected branches, remove bad leaves and collect rotten fruits.
The collected parts of the affected tree are burned or carried away from the garden. If it is decided to completely remove the entire tree, then the roots should be dug as deep as possible.
Disinfection and isolation of the wound
The section of the trunk cleared of bark is disinfected with a solution of copper or iron sulfate, potassium permanganate and brilliant green. Then the area cleared of the fungus is treated with garden varnish, drying oil or oil paint. These components protect the wound from moisture and air.
Apple tree processing
A tree affected by cancer is completely sprayed with copper sulfate. The use of other agents containing copper is also permitted. After complete disinfection, the wound is coated with a composition of clay and mullein.
To completely eradicate the infection, the entire garden should be treated with antifungal agents. For a while, you should refrain from digging the soil near the trunk. This will avoid the appearance of wounds and cracks in the roots.
What remedies are effective in combating the disease
In the fight against infections, chemicals and natural ingredients of folk recipes help. The main thing is to follow the recommendations for dosing and dilution. The funds used can be used to destroy spores, disinfect wounds and fertilize the soil in order to increase immunity.
Antifungal drugs for humans
There are gardeners who treat apple cancer with an antifungal agent "Nystatin". The drug destroys fungi that live on the human mucous membrane. Therefore, it is inappropriate to treat plants with medicine.
For disinfection, it is effective to use preparations based on copper. The effective remedies include copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, Kuproksat, Khom, Tsikhom, Oksikhom. There are universal drugs that fight viruses, bacteria and fungi: Alirin, Fitosporin, Topaz, Fundazol, Gamair, Strike. Such drugs penetrate into hard-to-reach places, destroying spores.
The cancer treatment option involves the use of the antibiotic Streptomycin. The treatment plan includes several stages:
- A hole 2.5 cm deep is drilled in the trunk at a meter level from the ground. A site is selected that is free from wounds and cracks so that the medicine does not leak out.
- A special system is being purchased that allows the drug solution to be injected into the barrel using a hose.
- After the introduction of the drug, the hole is closed with a stopper.
- The injections are repeated five times at weekly intervals.
- The introduction of the solution must be done in each branch, the diameter of which is more than 16 cm.
The injected drug is distributed in different directions over two meters.
Useful "Tetracycline" or "Streptomycin". The solution can be prepared from any form of antibiotic release.
In the first year of treatment, "Streptomycin" is used. A pre-cleaned wound is sprayed with a liquid medicinal solution. Processing is carried out three times per season. In the second year of treatment, the drug is replaced with "Tetracycline". To dilute the solution, two antibiotic tablets are useful, which are dissolved in water.
Compositions of folk recipes are considered effective.
A mixture of clay and mullein
The components are taken in equal proportions. A thick layer of the resulting mixture is applied to the affected area. Then the place is bandaged and a layer of the mixture is applied again. Leave such a bandage for the whole season, periodically moisten with water.
Rosin, wax and nigrola
Each component is taken in equal proportions. It is recommended to apply several layers of the mixture to the damaged area at a certain time interval.
A small portion of the garden soil is treated with fungicides, moistened with water and applied to the damaged area.
Terms of treatment
It will be possible to completely cure the apple tree from cancer in a few years. The timing largely depends on the stage of the disease and the degree of spread.
Prevention measures include:
- for planting and grafting, only healthy shoots and seedlings are chosen;
- to maintain immunity, organize regular feeding;
- pruning and peeling of the bark should be carried out annually;
- whitewashing will help protect the trunk from burns and infection;
- trunks should be protected from winter frost;
- the near-trunk zone is periodically weeded and loosened.
By following all the tips and tricks, you will be able to avoid the appearance of cancer.
Cancer resistant varieties
The varieties resistant to black crayfish are: Alva, Anis, Alesya, Papirovka, Jonathan, Borovinka, Rubin, Autumn joy.