Determination of forage cows and preparation of the ration, registration of feed consumption

Determination of forage cows and preparation of the ration, registration of feed consumption

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Forage - vegetable crops intended for feeding animals for agricultural purposes. Includes grains of cereals and legumes, straw, hay, chaff. Previously, fodder was used only for horses. Today the scope of application has expanded: feed is given to cattle, poultry. Forage cows deserve special attention. What are these animals? What are their features and differences?

Forage cow: what does it mean

On livestock farms, the livestock is divided into subgroups depending on the lactation period. Dry individuals, females after childbirth and dairy cows are kept separately. The goal is to obtain the correct appropriate diet, as nutrition at different stages of life is different:

  1. Dry individuals - vitamin mixtures.
  2. Fresh cows - hay and water, gradual introduction of protein and concentrates.
  3. Milk - advance nutrition to increase milk yield.

Fresh cows and cows for milk production are fodder animals. They receive additional feeding (forage). This food is rich in protein, which is of particular value to the animal. The substance supports the normal functioning of the body, increases productivity indicators.

How are grains and legumes for forage processed?

It is important to prepare feed properly. This is necessary for better absorption and to get the maximum effect from its use. The peculiarities of the course of preparation are influenced by the type of the selected additive. Processing methods for cereals and legumes are different. The grain variety includes oats, barley, rye. Grain processing:

  1. Crushing, crushing or breaking. An obligatory method for breaking the hard shell of the grain. In this form, forage is absorbed faster.
  2. Crimping or crushing. The procedure improves the palatability of the forage. The resulting product is assimilated in full. The body does not need to spend efforts to digest the tough shell of the grain.
  3. Micronization is a heat treatment process (exposure of forage to infrared rays). As a result, the shell cracks, the feed grain becomes soft.
  4. Malting to increase the sugar content of the forage.

Legumes are lupine and soybeans. These feeds are heat treated. Most often, steaming or cooking is carried out. When exposed to heat, the anti-nutritional substances contained in the product are destroyed. Finished forage has a high content of protein, valuable for a milking individual.

Milking control

Determination of milk production of forage cows is a mandatory procedure for farms and private households. This allows you to calculate the productivity of each female. The milk yield is calculated for the whole year and for the days of lactation. In small farmsteads, the milk received from each individual is weighed daily.

On large farms, only average values ​​can be calculated. To do this, use the formulas. First, the total milk yield is divided by the number of dairy cows in the herd. To find out how much milk was produced by one forage individual, the annual or monthly volume is divided by the duration of lactation.

Example of counting per 1 forage cow:

  1. Determination of the number of livestock. For example, there are 340 heads in total.
  2. Monthly milk volume (31 days) - 200,000 liters.
  3. Division of the obtained values. Total milk volume per herd size. 200,000/340 = 588 HP This is the monthly value per forage cow.
  4. Next, the calculation of the daily volume. 588/31 days = 18.9 liters produced by a forage cow per day.

For a complete assessment of the livestock complex, a fat and protein analysis is also carried out. The data is recorded in special journals.

Expert opinion

Zarechny Maxim Valerievich

Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.

High volumes of milk yield are an indicator of a quality farm and an effective forage base. At low rates, the diet, keeping conditions, and breed characteristics are reviewed.

Accounting for feed consumption

It is conducted by the number of feeding days. Approximate structure: at the beginning of the month, the number of goals is recorded, the data is logged. Over the next month, all changes are made in the herd: replenishment with new animals, the departed livestock. In parallel with this, they keep records of the consumed feed. At the end of the month, the results are summed up, the formula for the calculations is identical to the determination of the volume of milk yield.

Controlling feed consumption is needed for a variety of actions. This is a forecast of feed days and determination of the number of individuals for receiving feed supplements.

Also, calculations allow you to find out how many cows will go to dead wood, how many will replenish the dairy group. The data obtained determines how much forage will be needed for brooding females.

Nutrition rules

Forage is not the only animal feed. Individuals should visit pastures, where cows independently replenish the missing volume of plant components. Average walking time is 8-10 hours. So that the feed mixtures do not disrupt the work of the digestive tract, it is necessary to constantly give water. At least 5 waterings are required per day.

Features of the diet for each group in the herd:

Cash cowsCalving was recently rescheduled. Are in the process of being milked. Require a balanced and complete diet:

1. Herbal mixtures.

2. Legumes.

3. Cereals.

Dry (after completion of lactation)The cows are preparing for insemination. The task of nutrition is the accumulation of useful trace elements for the subsequent period of bearing calves. The diet should be saturated with vitamins and useful elements.
NovotelnyCows after calving. Forage is given to prevent disruptions in milk production. Forage is introduced gradually, daily increasing the volume to the norm.

The use of feed mixtures is an opportunity to increase the average milk yield per cow by 0.5-1 liter. Forage individuals are capable of producing up to 3,000 liters of milk per year. Therefore, by providing a suitable diet and reasonable maintenance, the farmer receives minimal feed costs and increased productivity. To achieve a noticeable result, it is necessary to use only prepared and pre-processed forage feed.

Watch the video: Low cost Animal feed Preparation (July 2022).


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